State of Hate: Far-Right Extremism in Europe 2021

Major international events such as the corona pandemic, the US election, Brexit and the Black Lives Matter protests have also affected the European far right. Racial nationalism and conspiracy theories have gained momentum, according to a new report that looks at the trends in the European far right in 2020.

This report presents an overview of the European far right in broad terms. The report explores trends within the traditional far right organizations, such as political parties, but also shows how the modern far right is currently undergoing a major and more radical change. It is moving towards a transnational and post-organizational threat.

The environment Europe’s far right today consists of a mixture of formal political parties, such as the Sweden Democrats, Vox in Spain, the Lega in Italy and the AFD in Germany, and a series of looser, transnational movements that include a disparate set of individuals who are part of a collective, but not in any formal cooperation.

Thousands of individuals around the world donate micro-donations; they contribute their time or sometimes with money in a collaboration towards common political goals, completely outside traditional organizational structures. These movements lack formal leaders. Instead, they have front figures, often taken from the far right’s growing selection of influencers on social media.

If we want to fully understand the contemporary far right, we must therefore change our way of thinking and studying it.

In the report, 34 leading researchers, researchers and activists give their view of Europe’s far right today. The report is a collaboration between HOPE not hate (UK), Amadeu Antonio Foundation (Germany) and the Expo Foundation (Sweden). The report is based on a European attitude survey with a total of 12,000 respondents in eight European countries. Furthermore, the report contributes with an in-depth discussion of a handful of events that were particularly important to the European far and extreme right last year, and contains a review of development and trends country by country.

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